Concerning Korean Schools Relations between Korean Peninsula and Japan
1910 Annexation of Korea, Beginning of Land Survey by Japanese Imperial Government (~1918)
1923 Great Kanto Earthquake, Massacre of thousands of Koreans under martial law
1924 Korean population in Japan reaches 110,000
1935 Korean population in Japan reaches 620,000
1937 The Sino-Japanese war erupts
Japanese government forcibly mobilizes a total of 1.5 million Korean laborers to work in metal mines (150,000), coal mines (60,000), construction (300,000), harbors (50,000) and war plants (400,000).
1945 8.15  Japan loses the war, and Korea is liberated

10.15    Federation of Korean Residents in Japan (Choryun) formed                                                                    1.4 million of 2 million remaining Koreans repatriate upon liberation

1946 4. Korean language schools reformed, establishment of Korean elementary schools (1-3 grades)

9 Establishment of full time Korean elementary schools (1-6 grades)     

10.5 Establishment of a Korean junior high school -Tokyo Korean Junior High School

  Korean Residents Union in Japan (Mindan) formed    Choryun operates 525 elementary schools (42,182 students, 1,023 teachers) and 12 adult schools (724 students, 54 teachers)
1948 1.24  Ministry of Education notice “Korean students must be enrolled in Japanese schools” 1.26 “Korean teachers must take qualification exam”

3.1 Ministry of Education notice “Education facilities with more than 2 teachers and 20 students must apply for ‘miscellenous school’ status within the next 2 months; otherwise they shall be closed.”

4.24 Mass protest at Hygo Prefectural Government Office, Hyogo governor withdrew the closure order of Korean schools. US Eighth Army Commander General Robert Eichelberger declared “state of emergency” and the governor’s decision gets overturned.

4.26 At a mass protest in front of Osaka Prefectural Government building, Kim Taeil  shot and killed by Japanese police

4.27 15 principals of Korean schools arrested, closure of Korean schools in Tokyo

5.3 MORITO Tatsuo, Minster of Education and CHOI Yong-geun, Director of Education, Chongryun sign the memorundum that “allows operation of autonomous Korean education… as much as private schools are allowed.” (5.5)

10.4 Establishment of Korean high education.

4.3 Uprising in Jeju in protest of illegal election

8.15 Establishment of the Republic of Korea (ROK), Korean Residents Union in Japan (Mindan) changes its name from “在日本朝鮮居留民団” to”在日本大韓民国居留民団” alleging loyalty to Republic of Korea.

9.9 Establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK)

10.10 Yoshida’s second cabinet established

1949 5.25 Plenary Session, House of Representatives plenary adopts “朝鮮人学校教育費国庫負担請願”

10.19-11.4 Japanese government once again issues “Korean School Closure Order” to close down 367 Korean schools

1.29  ROKestablished delegation section in Japan

2.16 Yoshida’s third cabinet established

4.4 Organizations Regulation Act proclaimed

9.8 Organizations related to Choryun and Mindan forceully dissolved

11.24  Republic of Korea proclaims overseas national registration law

1950 4. Establishment of Kindergarten education -first kindergarten opens at Aichi Korean Daiichi Elementary School 6.25 The Korean War breaks out
1951 1.9 The pro-DPRK Democratic National United Front of Koreans in Japan (Minsen) established -working for the right to life and ethnic education

9.8 San Francisco Peace Treaty and  Japan-US Security Treaty signed

10.20 ROK-Japan preliminary-discussion begins

1952 4.19 Upon conclusion of SF Peace Treaty, he Civil Affairs Bureau Chief of the Ministry of Justice, declares remaining Koreans and Taiwanese in Japan lose their “Japanese citizenship” and fall under the Foreigner Registration Law (4.28)
1953 7.27 Armistice is formally signed in Korean Peninsula
1955 5.25 Dissolution of Minsen, Establishement of The General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongryun)
1956 4.10 Establishment of Korea University in Tokyo
1957 4. DPRK government sends its very first educational grant and scholarship to Korean schools in Japan -as of April 2008, a total amount of money sent is 24.6 billion yen (154 times)
1959 8.13  A repatriation agreement between the Red Cross Societies of Japan and DPRK signed

12 First ship to DPRK leaves Niigata port -by 1984, a total of 93,000 repatriated (187 trips)

1962 Armed police enters Ibaraki Korean Junior and Senior High School -with an excuse to search for students not carrying alien registration cards
1965 A series of lyinching of Tokyo Korean High School students by Kokushikan University students

12.28 Notices from Vice Minister of Education “Implementation of education related activities accordng to 1965 ROK-Japan Agreement” and “Treatment of educational facilities exclusively serving Koreans” -pressuring prefectural governors not to approve Korean schools’ miscellenous school status, intending to close ethnic classes within Japanese public schools

1968 4.17 Tokyo governor approves Korea University as “miscelleneous” school
1975 All 161 Korean schools in 28 prefectures recognized as “miscellenious” schools by governors.
1979 6. Japan ratifies UN Covenants on Human Rights
1989 48 incidendes of physical violence involving 64 Korean students as victims following the remark by Vice Minister of Public Security Intelligence Agency “Korean schools provide anti-Japan education”
1990 Osaka Korean High School’s volleyball team barred from participating in the tournament because of its “micelleaneous” school status
1991 Japan High School Baseball Federation implements a special measure for foreign schools allowing them to participate in the tournament
1993  All Japan High School Athletic Federation approves participation of “miscelleanous” and vocational schools including Korean schools in the  Inter-High School Athletic Competition
1994 Korean schools participate in the  Inter-High School Athletic Competition for the first time

Korean school students approved for student discount rate for transportation pass

4-7 160 incidents of physical violence targeting Korean school students involving arrests in 3 cases (perpetrators found guilty in 1 case)

4. Japanese government announces suspicion of nuclear weapons in DPRK
1995 Japan Football Association approves Korean high schools’ participation in the National High School Football Championship 12. Japan ratifiesnternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1996 8. Ministry of Education official “Korean schools are useless for Japan’s public as their educational purpose is to develop Korean ethnicity and national identity as Koreans”
1998 At least 57 incidents of physical violence targeting Korean school students (only 6 recognized by police, no arrest)

Japan Federation of Bar Associations submits a report on ensuring ethnic education to Prime Minister and Ministry of Education                                                                  Kyoto University’s Graduate School of Science allows graduates of Korean schools to take an entrance exam

Japanese government announces DPRK’s missile lauch in “Sea of Japan” (East Sea)
1999 Ministry of Education authorizes each university’s autonomous decition to allow graduates of “foreign schools” to take an entrance exam without having them complete a credential program by attending Japanese school (so-called double schooling).
2000 6.15 North–South Joint Declaration (KIM Daejung & Kim Jongil)

4.11 Ishihawa, former Tokyo governor makes a racist remark against Koreans (“Sangokujin”)

2001 The U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination recommendations to take speacial measures on the hate crimes against Korean female students (their Korean style school uniform slashed in public)
2002 9.17      DPRK-Japan Summit Meeting, DPRK admits abduction of Japanese civilians
2003 3. Ministry of Eduation approves graduates from 16 internatonal schools to take an entrance exam of national universities without the University Entrance Qualification Examination
2004 1. 82 of 83 national universities approves graduates of Korean schools to take an entrance exam without the University Entrance Qualification Examination                10. A graduate of Kyoto Korean School admitted to Kyoto University under the new regulation
2007 Raid by armed police at Shiga Korean Elementary School -to confiscate personal information on enrolled students and their family                                                                     Lawsuit on eviction of Tokyo Korean Daini Elementary School in Edagawa reaches a settlement 10.4 North–South Joint Declaration, discussion on overseas Koreans (Article 8)
2008 Annual tax revenue (national and local) from Koreans reaches approximately 280 billion yen
2009 Zaitokukai, full name Zainichi Tokken o Yurusanai Shimin no Kai (Association of Citizens against the Special Privileges of the Zainichi) attacks Kyoto Korean Daiichi Elementary School

Series of hate demonstrations and hate speech in Japan

2010 3. The U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination makes strong recommendations to Japanese government to stop discrimination against Korean schools

4.1 Newly introduced High School Tuition Waiver Program excludes 10 Korean high schools

6.28 Civil lawsuit filed on the case of Zaitokukai’s attack on Kyoto Korean Daiichi Elementary School

11. Prime Ministe KAN Naotor freezes the evaluation process for Korean high schools to decide if they should be included in the “Tuition Waiver Program”

Korean population in Japan as of 2010: 120,000 in Tokyo, 130,000 in Osaka, 50,000 in Hyogo, 40,000 in Aichi, 30,000 in Kanagawa, 30,000 in Kyoto, 20,000 in Saitama, 20,000 in Fukuoka, 20,000 in Chiba and 10,000 in Hiroshima -comprising 70% of total Korean population

1st generation: 4%

2nd generation: 37%

3rd generation: 48%

4th generation: 11%


11.  Bombardment of Yeonpyeong Island

2011 Osaka prefectural government suspends education subsidies to all Korean schools in the prefecture

Tokyo, Miyagi and Saitama prefectural governments follow and stop subsidies

8. Prime Minister KAN Naoto lifts the freeze on evaluating Korean high schools

2012 12.26 Liberal Democratic Party becomes the ruling party

12.28 Minister of Education SHIMOMURA Hakubun announces the exclusion of Korean schools from the “Tuition Waiver Program”

7.9 Alien Registration Law abolished, introduction of  the “New Residency Management System,” rendering foreign nationals newly incorporated into the  Basic Resident Registration Network System
2013 1.24 Lawsuit to demand inclusion of Korean schools in the “Tuition Waiver Program” filed in Osaka and Aichi prefectures                                                                        2.20 Ministry of Education proclaims and enforces a new ordinance excluding Korean schools from the “Tuition Waiver Program”

3. Tokyo Machida city government excludes Korean schools for distribution of safety alarms to all students in the municipality (later overturns the decision)

5.17 The U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights criticizes Japanese government of exclusion of Korean schools from the “Tuition Waiver Program” as a form of “discrimination” and demands  an immediate inclusion

8.1 Lawsuit to demand inclusion of Korean schools in the “Tuition Waiver Program” filed in Hiroshima

10.8 Kyoto Local District Court verdict, attacks against Korean schools “violate the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the monetary compensation must be high”

11.1 Tokyo government releases a “report” on Korean schools                                                                                12. Lawsuit to demand inclusion of Korean schools in the “Tuition Waiver Program” filed in Fukuoka

A total number of naturalized Japanese  350,000 (as of 2013)
2014 2.17 Lawsuit to demand inclusion of Korean schools in the “Tuition Waiver Program” filed in Tokyo

4.2 Amendment of the Private Educational Institutions Act

7.8 Osaka High Court verdict, dismissing Zaitokukai’s claims                                                                                 8.29 The U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination shows deep concerns and recommends to take special measures regarding the exclusion of Korean schools from the “Tuition Waiver Program” by Japanese national goverment and suspension of education subsities by local governments

12.9 Supreme Court discmisses Zaitokukai’s claims –> Victory for Korean schools

As of April 2014, Chongryun operates 53 elementary schools, 33 junior high schools, 10 senior high schools, 1 university and 38 kindergartens (at 64 different locations) serving approximately 8,000 students in total

To Be Continued……